Important information about Croatia

Croatia (Hrvatska, formally) the Republic of Croatia, is a republic in southeastern Europe. Croatia borders on Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia-Herzegovina to the east and Slovenia and Ungerni north. In the west and southwest of the Adriatic is a maritime state border with Italy. Croatia’s capital and seat of government of Zagreb is the country’s academic and scientific center and a major transport hub.

National Anthem Lijepa Naša domovino (”Our beautiful homeland”)

Capital Zagreb

Largest city, Zagreb (about 790 000 inhabitants)

Official language Croatian

City Condition Republic

President Ivo Josipovic

Prime Minister Jadranka Kosor

Independence 25/6 1991

Surface 56542km2

Population 4 494 749

Population density 79, 7inv / km2

GDP 69440 million

Per capita $ 13,607

Currency Kuna (HRK)

Time zone UTC + 1

Highest mountain Dinara 1830 m asl.

The biggest lake Vransko Jezero 30,2km2

Longest river Sava 945.5 km

Nationalday June 25

Country Code HR HRV

Country code 385

Croatia is a member of the World Trade Organization and the Central European Free Trade Association CEFTA. The country will join the European Union (1juli 2013)

Croatia is since 1 April 2009 Member of the NATO defense alliance.

History

The Croats are a Slavic-speaking peoples who lived in the area now known as Galicia (Ukraine and Poland). From there they migrated in 600s further south to today’s Croatia. Croats origin is not conclusively established. One theory has recently emerged where Croats are said to have originated from Iran, based on the mention of a people whose name is meant to be the origin of the word Croat in the writings on the stones found there the word Croat can be traced to ancient Slavic word for ”mountain” frskare have with today’s modern DNA technology have been able to establish that the Croats are Slavs and not of Iranian origin. They share the same gene pool as the other Europeans and are more genetically similar Scandinavians than the Iranians.

Croats first king was Tomislav I from 925. During östromersk and later Frankish supremacy of Croatia became one of the most powerful kingdoms in the region, but in 1102 ended an internal power struggle, which lasted for a century, and the Croatians sat under Hungarian supremacy.

During the mid-1400s was the Hungarian kingdom strongly affected by the Ottoman expansion during the following centuries came to include most of Slavonia and later, more than half of Hungary. During the same time, Dalmatia became Venetian. Dubrovnik (Ragusa) was a city-state that was originally Byzantine and Venetian, but later became an independent state called the Republic of Dubrovnik, although it was put under the neighboring countries’ sovereignty.

Battle of Mohács in 1526 forced the Croatian Parliament to invite the Habsburgs during Ferdinand I to assume control over Croatia, which took place at the parliament of Cetin. Habsburg rule eventually led to the Ottomans was coerced, and in the 1700s was the most of Croatia out of Ottoman control and the Habsburgs were Istria, Dalmatia and Dubrovnik between 1797 and 1815. After World War I, Austria-Hungary’s case amounted Croatia in the 1928 would become Yugoslavia. During World War II Yugoslavia was invaded by Italy and Germany. During the Italian occupation, Croatia became a fascist puppet state called Independent State of Croatia. After the war Yugoslavia was a socialist, federative state under Josip Broz Tito’s leadership.

Croatia, along with Slovenia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro and Macedonia, one of the republics in the federation of Yugoslavia until 1991 when the country since democratic elections decided to leave the federation.

In 1991, Croatia declared its independence from Yugoslavia, which led to a war, known as the Croatian War of Independence, the Yugoslav army and Serb separatists. The Croatian War of Independence lasted five years and was formally terminated år1995 when Dayton Peace Agreement was signed between Bosnia-Herzegovina and the former Yugoslavia, which then consisted of Serbia and Montenegro. The last UN troops left Croatia in 1998 when the last Yugoslav troops left eastern Croatia.

Geography

Croatia has a shape that resembles a crescent or horseshoe. It is bordered by Slovenia, Hungary, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and maritime against Italy. The country is divided into two parts of Bosnia-Herzegovina’s short stretch of coast around Neum. Croatia lies on the border between South, Central and Eastern Europe, making it difficult to attribute to a specific region. Croatia counts sometimes as a central European country because of its geographical, cultural and historical ties to the countries of Central Europe. Sometimes it also counts as one of the Balkans, due to its geographic position and it has belonged to the former Yugoslavia. Others expect the country to either Eastern Europe or the Mediterranean countries, while some organizations are content to place the country between Eastern Europe and Central Europe.

In the northern and northeastern part of the terrain is dominated by fields, lakes and ridges. In Lika and Gorski Kotar landscape is dominated by densely forested mountains. The narrow Adriatic coast (Istria and Dalmatia) are mostly mountainous. The country is sometimes called ”the thousand islands’ country because there are about 1233 islands on the Croatian coast.

Croatia has a mixture of climates. In the north and east it is continental, Mediterranean climate on the coast and in the country’s South Central parts prevail highland climate.

The highest mountain is Dinara 1 830 m above sea level and the largest lake is Kozje. The longest river is the Sava.

Major cities in Croatia including Zagreb, Split, Rijeka, Osijek, Zadar, Slavonian Brod Pula, Karlovac, Dubrovnik, Varazdin, Sisak, Sibenik, Vinkovci, Vukovar, Đakovo, Knin, Rovinj, Opatija and Sinj.

Croatia is usually divided into four regions or landscapes that have no administrative significance. There is no glass clear boundaries between the regions and they do not coincide with the administrative county boundaries are. The regions corresponding to Sweden Götaland, Svealand and Norrland are as follows: Istria (Istria), Dalmatia (Dalmacija), Slavonia (Slavonia) and Continental Croatia (Hrvatska Kontinentalna). While the regions have historic areas that have no administrative significance, or clear boundaries – like Roslagen in Uppland or Österlen in Skåne. For example constitutes Baranja and Srijem parts of eastern Slavonia. Zagorje is a region north of Zagreb and Gorski Kotar region north-east of Rijeka. The area to the south of the Drava River which forms the border with Hungary called Podravina, while the area to the north of the Sava River which forms the border with Bosnia-Herzegovina called Posavina. The region north of Dalmatia called Lika and the region northeast of the equally named Kordun. As in Sweden, there are dialects and to some extent cultural differences between the regions, but those differences are negligible and do not necessarily coincide with the regions and county boundaries are.

Climate

Croatia’s climate varies from being temperate continental type in the northern and eastern parts of the country, to be subtropical of Mediterranean coastal and mountain climate between the coastal and mountain regions of Lika, Dalmatia and Zagora. Annual rainfall is low in Croatia thanks to the location on the Mediterranean. Driest it is at the south of the Mediterranean coast, around only about 300 mm per year, and the wettest months in Dinarerna around Lika, about 2 000 mm. In Croatia, the large temperature differences between day and night, and summer and winter. Inland dominates the north-easterly winds, which brings snow and cold, while the Mediterranean coast is dominated by mild southwest winds from the Mediterranean which brings rain and mild weather. In summer, the interior is dominated by easterly winds from Russia, which brings humid and hot weather. Mediterranean coast is dominated by sydvindar from Africa involving drought and heat, as well as sunny days. Inland, however, the nights may be chilly with temperatures of -2 degrees and temperatures of up to +30 degrees at midday, but the coast is not as much difference. Where it can be +35 to day +25 at night, ie tropical night. However, Croatia has not tropical climate without subtropical only on the coast.

Government and politics

Form of government

According to the Constitution of 1990, Croatia is a parliamentary democracy. Croatian President is head of state and commander in chief, and elected for five years. The president appoints the prime minister with the approval of Parliament and also has some influence over foreign policy. The Croatian Parliament (Sabor) consists of a chamber with 160 members elected for four years. Parliament convenes January 15-July 15 and between 15 September and 15 December. Government (Vlada), headed by the Prime Minister, consists of two deputy prime ministers and 14 ministers. The justice system is threefold, with a Supreme Court and county courts, and municipal courts.

Foreign policy conditions

Croatia’s foreign policy goals is membership in the European Union and NATO. The country is also working globally and regionally in different ways to strengthen its position. Croatia is since 2000 member iPartnerskap for Peace (PfP) and aspired to NATO membership from 2002. On 17 October 2007 elected Croatia to one of the non-permanent members of the UN Security Council for the period 2008-2009. During the NATO summit in BUKARESTden April 3, 2008 Croatia received an official invitation to join NATO and then on 1 April 2009, the country is a member of the alliance.

In 2003 examined Croatia’s membership in the European Union (EU). The country was granted candidate status in 2004 and has made several reforms to adapt its economy to the EU. Europe was long reluctant to further develop the candidacy towards eventual full membership as Croatia under the EU were long unwilling to extradite General Ante Gotovina, who is suspected of war crimes committed during Croatia’s war of independence (1991-1995). In 2005, Croatia to begin membership negotiations when the EU is now believed that Croatia is fully cooperating with the International Criminal Tribunal in The Hague. The decision was prompted by the Spanish police (after the tip of the Croatian Intelligence Service) were able to arrest Ante Gotovina in the Canary Islands, and handed him over to the International Criminal Tribunal in The Hague. Croatia will become the Union’s 28th member in 2013. In December 2008, Slovenia vetoed the opening ten chapters in the accession talks because of the ongoing border dispute. The blockage was lifted in the autumn of 2009 and negotiations resumed on 2 October 2009. So far 30 out of 35 chapters opened in accession negotiations with Croatia, of which seventeen have been completed.

Economy

Tourism is a vital part of business life. Croatia’s foreign trade is focused on the EU, and therefore affected the economy of the trends in countries such as Sweden, the Netherlands and Italy. The country’s per capita GDP was estimated (purchasing power adjusted) in 2007 to about 15 500 US dollars (the world average is 10 000 US dollars).

Croatia, Slovenia, second, the most prosperous country of the states that once made up Yugoslavia. In the late 1980s began with the fall of communism an economic transition. Croatia had an advantageous position but badly damaged by de-industrialization and war. The main problems facing the country today is a relatively high unemployment rate (11.2% in 2006) and slow reforms. Especially difficult factors are the justice system and public administration, both of which are outdated and inefficient.

The country has seen rapid growth in recent years and has applied for membership of the EU. The country has also been granted the status of official candidate. Several steps have already been taken to make the Croatian economy more similar to the EU and it is expected that this in the near future will lead to increased activity in the economy.

Demography

Croatia populated mainly avKroater (89.6%). The largest minority groups ärSerber (4.5%), Bosniaks (0.5%) and Hungarians (0.4%).

Croatia’s population has stagnated over the past decade. War which lasted between 1991 and 1995 contributed mainly to this, partly because people were killed in battle, partly because the country lived through a great emigration. The natural population growth rate is zero or negative and is about ± 1%. Life expectancy is around 75 years, and the literacy rate is 97.5%. The population’s average age is 38.9 years.

Serbs of Croatia

Before detKroatiska war of independence constituted the largest minority Serbs nearly 13% of the population. During the war many Serbs left Croatia for political and / or economic reasons. As Croatia through Operation Storm in 1995 retook the Serb-held Krajina region escaped an estimated 250 000 to Serbia, Republika Serpska and other parts of the world from persecution and forced deportation of the Croatian forces. Get Serbs today, however, returned to Croatia. The Croatian government’s official position is that all the Serbs who fled or left the country during the Croatian War of Independence should and should return to Croatia if they so wish. Financial support has led to upwards of 120,000 Serbs have returned to Croatia in recent years.

Religion

The main religion is Catholicism (89.2%), minority religions are mostly Serbian Orthodox (5.0%), Islam (1.3%) and Protestants (0.3%). Other forms 5.6%.

Language

Croatian is the official language and mordersmål for the majority of the population. It is a Slavic language that uses the Latin alphabet. Other languages ​​(Serbian, Italian, Hungarian, Slovenian, Czech, Istro-Romanian language, etc.) is spoken by less than five percent of the population.
In Istria, where an Italian minority group exists, is also Italian language an official language.

Infrastructure

Ways

In recent years, Croatia has put several billion kronor in expanding the country’s motorway and thus connect all parts of Croatia. Motorways are (as in many other European countries) toll. The tunnels Grič and Brinje considered among the safest and most modern in Europe in 2007. The Croatian Government has expressed that they will continue to invest in infrastructure as it is considered to be an important element in the country’s economic recovery. Road construction creates jobs while the country can count on foreign investments when many international companies are dependent on good infrastructure. Moreover, many of the hundreds of thousands of tourists visiting Croatia motoring and congestion was earlier the rule rather than the exception. Minor roads are still a lower standard than in western Europe. But even here apply to the government to invest money to further improve quality. Following independence in road building, received a boost, and in 1995 completed highway (unofficially called ”Dalmatina”) between the capital Zagreb and the country’s second largest city, Split, in southern Croatia. Thus shortening the travel time from about 8-9 hours to four hours. At the inauguration, the Government announced a thirty-year dream come true and that they intend to continue the motorway until it reaches Dubrovnik in southern Croatia. In 2007 begins the construction of the Peljesac bridge, which will connect the mainland and the peninsula of Peljesac. It will be completed within four years and will then be Europe’s 18th longest bridge.

Most highways operated by the state-owned company Hrvatske dd autoceste (Croatian Motorways AB).

Railways

Track standard in Croatia is relatively good but rail network is in need of modernization. The railway network was built during the time when Croatia was part of government formation Austro-Hungarian and Croatian cities are rather connected with Vienna than with each other. The trains’ standard is high and the Croatian Government have declared that they now intend to invest in the rail network and enable high-speed trains to run on multiple lines. In 2007 commenced the modernization of the section between Croatia’s largest port town of Rijeka, the capital Zagreb and the Hungarian border, which will reduce travel time between the cities significantly. The construction will be completed in 2013 and cost about twenty billion.

Rail traffic is handled primarily by the company ”Hrvatske željeznice doo” (Croatian Railways AB).

Shipping

Shipping is very important for Croatia, and has several major ports. The main ports located in Omišalj, Ploce, Rijeka, Sibenik, Dubrovnik, Dugi Rat, Pula, Split and Zadar. Croatia has 66 inhabited islands off its coast, which means that there are a large number of local ferries. Croatian trade fleet consists of 73 ships. Some of the nation’s largest shipyards named Uljanik in Pula, and Viktor Lenac and 3.maj, in Rijeka.

Flight

Croatia’s state-owned airlines heterCroatia Airlines. The company was founded in August 7, 1989 under the name of Zagal (Zagreb Airlines). When Croatia became independent in 1991 the company changed its name to Croatia Airlines. Croatia Airlines is a member of IATA, AEA and the Star Alliance. The company has in recent years seen a strong increase in passengers and in 2005 Croatia Airlines transported 1,555,033 passengers to various destinations in Croatia and worldwide.

More recently, other actors (including Ryanair) entered the Croatian market and offers flights to Croatia. International airports are in Zagreb (Pleso), Split (Resnik), Dubrovnik (Čilipi), Pula, Krk (Rijeka), Zadar and Osijek.

Culture

Croatia’s culture is based on one thirteen centuries-long history, during which it managed to acquire many monuments and cities, which have given a large number of prominent individuals. The country also houses seven World Heritage Sites and eight national parks. Croatia counts sometimes as a central European country because of its cultural and historical ties to the countries of Central Europe. Croatia belonged to the central European state formation Habsburg (later Austria-Hungary) for several centuries before the country in 1918 was in the then newly founded state formation ”Serbs, Croats and Slovenes kingdom” (later called Yugoslavia). The Croatian culture, because of these historical facts, referred to as ”central European” and Croatians consider themselves to belong to the Western cultural sphere. An independent Gallup survey conducted in September and October 2008 showed that a majority of Croats (60%) not identified with the region of the Balkans. Other countries look still frequently Croatia as a part of the Balkans, and often as a part of the former Yugoslavia Although the tradition of playing the instrument gusle which is a typical instrument of the Balkans. Famous musicians are Oliver Dragojevic, Zlatan Stipišić Gibonni, Tony Cetinski, Nina Badrić and Ivana Banfić. Three Nobel Prize winners have come from Croatia, plus a large number of inventors. Slavoljub Eduard Penkala, reservoarpennans inventor, came from Croatia and was active in Zagreb.

Neck Clothing has strong ties to Croatia, then tie (kravata), according to legend was invented there. The country also has a long tradition of musicians, artists and writers.

The Low German became the word for Croat, ”krawat” distorted the creature and eventually came to denote a ”rascal, patrons, rogue or rascal.” This word then came into Swedish with approximately the same meaning, but can also stand for ”little kid”.

Food Culture

Croatia is becoming increasingly known for its good food and fine wines. The genuine Croatian cuisine is multifaceted and has many regional differences. Common, however, is quality as the Croatians love to use fresh and biologically produced raw materials. Along the coast of Istria, Dalmatia and Primorje, the food is inspired by Italy but cooked in ”Croatian style”. Fish, seafood, pasta and pizza, is often on the menu. Sea urchin and rock lobster, grilled and served with a lemon wedge is popular on the menu as well pljeskavica which is a hamburger cooked in beef mixed with pepperoni. Buzzara is a cooking method that is suitable for various kinds of seafood. Buzzara simply means that the main ingredient is cooked in a spicy sauce with wine, tomatoes, spices and herbs. Sometimes you can get just the sauce with the pasta. Pašticada is a kind of stew that some describe as sweet and sour. The taste is based on meat is simmered long at low temperature along with including wine and sometimes prunes. Rizoto reminiscent of the Italian risotto, but is often looser texture and do not always contain cheese. Rizoto is an excellent and inexpensive lunch right is usually found in countless cheap variants (vegetarian, seafood, housing, etc.) in most restaurants. Inland, where the cuisine is inspired by Hungary and Austria, take the meat dishes to. Fried or grilled beef, lamb and pork are common across the country. In Zagorje (region north of Zagreb) is the food culture inspired by Austria and have found also the best schnitzels in the country. Capital Zagreb has its own specialty, Zagrebački odrezak, which is a wiener schnitzel stuffed with ham and cheese. In Slavonia, a region in eastern Croatia, stands Hungarian cuisine to spicy peppers and hearty stews like goulash and Maneštra. In Croatia there are also some dishes which originated from Turkey, via neighboring Serbia and Bosnia-Herzegovina came to Croatia where they have been domesticated. Best known is cevapcici, a type of ground beef rolls, served with potatoes or fries and burek is an airy puff pastry bread filled with various ingredients, such as meat, cheese, potatoes or apple. Even the desserts are a very high standard. Croatian ice cream (Croatian: sladoled) is an excellent competitor of the Italian ice cream in terms of both taste and quality. Cremeschnitte is a lovely vanilla pastry originally from the town of Samobor, near Zagreb, and can be enjoyed throughout Croatia as well strudl which is an apple cake that originated iÖsterike.

Drink

Croatia is a big wine producer and produces many different wines of varying quality. The most famous red wines are Dingač, Plavac and Postup all manufactured in the southernmost country part of Dalmatia. White wines are produced mainly in the northern parts of the country and the most famous is the Muscatel, Malvazija, Kaštelet and Pošip.

Croatia is not only a major wine producer. Beer production has also a long history. The largest beer brands in Croatia include ožujsko and Karlovacko.

One of the most common forms of liquor is rakija, a kind of brandy and are available in variety of flavors.

Seder

Between åre 1940-1995 when Croatia was part of Communist Yugoslavia were oppressed and neglected traditional religious practices, as well as in the other republics of the regime. Despite this, many Croats to exercise their customs and habits private. Since Croatia gained independence, encouraged old Croatian customs that nowadays practiced extensively in all parts of the country. The practices often have a religious Catholic origin and linked to the Catholic liturgical year. Many towns and villages hold processions to celebrate Easter, Christmas or the local patron saint.

Christmas

As in many other Catholic countries Christmas (Croatian: Božić) in Croatia a much more Christian character than in Sweden, for example. For the typical Croatian Christmas is a Christian holiday which celebrates the birth of Jesus. Christmas is celebrated with loved ones, and as in Sweden and the rest of the Christian world becomes commercial elements with expensive gifts and more common in Croatia. In those families where the gift distribution is practiced, according to tradition, Santa Claus (Djed Božićnjak) and more seldom the Infant Jesus (mali Isus) that come with them on Christmas Day (December 25). The tradition of it’s baby Jesus that comes with the gifts are originally from Germany and Austria where children receive gifts from ”Kristkindl”.

Advent (Croatian: Došašće) is celebrated in the same way as in Sweden but instead of an Advent candle holder has the Croatians an Advent wreath with four usually a little thicker light. Advent wreath looks something like a finely decorated overhead door wreath with four candles in and placed centrally on the table.
Saint Nicholas (Croatian: Sveti Nikola) can often confused medjultomten but come early as December 6 to all good children. According to tradition (which apart from Croatia celebrated in most Central European countries), all children the day before he will polish their shoes and place them at the window end. The window left ajar to Saint Nicholas during the night can drop in – and the children have been good and polished their shoes properly so they get candy or toys in or beside their finputsade shoes.
On Lucia Day (13 December), many Croats who, according to tradition puts wheat seeds on a dish and soak them so that they begin to sprout. The drum is placed on the table. On Christmas Day, it has stuck up about 10 cm long, green stalks and then tie a band that goes in the red, white and blue (Croatian tricolor) around them. According to tradition, it is believed that if the germ has taken and grown firmly expecting a successful year.
Christmas Eve (Croatian: Badnja vecer or shorter Badnjak) December 24 celebrates the most with family and / or friends. According to Catholic tradition, one eats no meat on this day without food consists of fish, specifically Bakalar that resembles stockfish. The tradition-bound place a straw in the tablecloth. On top of the straw and the tablecloth is placed Christmas bread (Badnji kruh) consisting of honey, nuts and dried fruit and has a central part in the dinner. This day is also borne the Christmas tree up and decorated with the usual Christmas tree decoration. Many families linked to so-called Licitarhjärtan in the tree. These hearts are traditionally red, finely decorated and made of an edible material. They hung First and foremost up from the decoration point of view. Many families concludes Christmas Eve by attending midnight mass (Croatian: polnoćka) where the highlight is the Croatian melodious Christmas carols.
Christmas Day (Croatian: Božić) is a Christmas highlight. This day wishes to family and friends a Merry Christmas (Croatian: Sretan Božić or Čestit Božić). You can also attend matins (Zorica). This day most families some kind of gift distribution. According to tradition, it is Santa Claus (Djed Božićnjak, directly translated ”Grandfather / Grandpa Jul”) that come with these. Christmas dinner may consist of pork, turkey or both depending what region you come from or what your traditions practiced in the family. The central part of the Christmas table has glazed julbrödet (not to be confused with the Christmas bread). Julbrödet comprises inter alia nutmeg, raisins and almonds and is formed into a rosary. Many places a candle in the middle of the bread and it is on the table until Epiphany (January 6) when Christmas is considered to be over and the bread is shared and eaten by everyone in the family.
Easter

Like Christmas has also Easter a strong Christian character and many Croatians visit church sometime during this festival.

On Easter Eve is usual to fill a small basket with small portions of food and painting Easter eggs. Bin takes with him to church where the priest blesses the basket by sprinkling holy water on it. On returning home, then eaten the food blessed by all the family.
Architecture

The Croatian architecture has been influenced by the country’s position in Europe. Ecclesiastical architecture and secular architecture blends touches of Italy and Austria with other forms coming from the Byzantine and Slavic world. In architecture, it may mostly Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque who left their mark on landet.Den genuinely Croatian architecture arises with the pre-Romanesque style in Prince Branimir. Along the Adriatic coast developed Gothic architecture in the 1400s after Venice conquered the coastal areas. The Venetian Gothic architecture not only influenced the design of the churches in Dalmatia, but was also a trend-setter for the higher estate portfolio villas and houses in towns such as Pula, Zadar, Sibenik and Split. Renaissance main architects and artists in Croatia was Juraj Dalmatinac, Nikola Firentinac and Andrija Alesi. These architects and artists were active primarily along the coast and participated in the construction of several churches and public buildings. Dubrovnik old town has several interesting constructions where the Sponza palace has characteristics of both Gothic and Renaissance. Baroque is the style that most characterizes the interior. The most interesting baroque buildings are in Varaždin, Požega, Osijek, Križevci, Ludbreg and Krapina. Capital Zagreb is strongly influenced by modernism and the 1800s was the Vienna Secession that gave inspiration which can be seen on buildings and other structures such as Villa Krauss. Architect Hermann Bolle has been particularly influential in the design of several buildings in Zagreb.

Training

Compulsory schooling comes from 6 or 7 to 14 or 15 years. Primary school is compulsory and financed entirely by the state. Elementary school is divided into two stages. In grades 1-4 are taught each class by a teacher who teaches all subjects. The topics included are Croatian, mathematics, visual arts and the natural and social sciences. From grades 5-8 are taught every subject by a specialist teacher and the topics will be the history, geography, biology, physics, chemistry, and more.

Between school level is still a voluntary school form, like in Svereige. Between school level is subdivided into upper secondary and yrkesskolaoch both are located in four years.

Croatia has seven universities, distributed in the cities of Zagreb, Rijeka, Osijek, Split, Zadar, Dubrovnik and Pula. Croatia has taken part and started to adapt their higher education systems for the Bologna Process, which should be fully operational by 2010.

Tourism

Popular tourist destinations, in addition to the capital Zagreb, the coastal towns of Pula, Sibenik, Split, Zadar, Baska Voda, Makarska, Hvar, Opatija, Porec, Rovinj, Split, Pag and the medieval city of Dubrovnik. The most visited part is the Dalmatia, which forms the southern part of Croatia’s coast on the Adriatic Sea. On the coast there are also many popular islands such as Krk, Croatia’s largest island, and the Kornati National Park and the island of Hvar.

About Brac

Brač  previously called ( Bretia, Brattia; is an island in the Adriatic Sea within Croatia, with an area of 396 square kilometres  making it the largest island in Dalmatia, and the third largest in the Adriatic. Its tallest peak, Vidova gora,  stands at 778 m, making it the highest island point in the Adriatic. The island has a population of 14,436, living in numerous settlements, ranging from the main town Supetar, with more than 3,300 inhabitants, to Murvica, where less than two dozen people live. Bol Airport on Brač is the largest airport of all islands surrounding Split.

History

Archaeological findings date the existence of human communities on the island back to the  palaeolithic (in the Kopacina cave between Supetar and Donji Humac). Nevertheless, there are no traces of human habitation from the neolithic. In the Broze Age and Iron age ,Illyrian tribes populated the inner parts of the island. Numerous villages existed at that time (but none of them survived).

In the 4th century BC Greek colonisation spread over many Adriatic islands and along the shore, but none of them on Brač. Nevertheless, Greeks visited the island and also traded with the Illyric tribes; Greek artifacts were found in the bay of Vica Luka near Ložišća on the estate of the Rakela-Bugre brothers. Many of the objects belonging to this still unexamined site are now on display in the Archeological Museum of Split. Brač lay on the crossroads of several trade routes from Solin to Vis)

Supetar

In the year AD 9, the Romans finally conquered Dalmatia after long fights against the native tribes. Salona became the capital of the new province and, probably because of its proximity to Salona, no bigger villages or towns were founded on the island. Signs of Roman habitation can be found all over the islands, but they usually remain single Roman villas, cisterns, and especially early quarries between Škrip and Splitska. Splitska also became the most important harbour to carry stone to Salona and the whole of Dalmatia. Diocletian’s Palace, which later became Split, was largely built with limestone that was quarried on Brač. Also agriculture, especially wine and olives, began in the same era.

After the destruction of Salona by Avar and Slavic tribes, Brač became a refuge for many denizens of the shore. Tradition has it that Škrip was founded by refugee Salonans, but the town is actually much older than that. In 872, the island was sacked by Saracen raiders.

From AD 1268 to 1357 the island recognised the supremacy of the Republic of Venice, and after that they bowed to the Kingdom of Hungary. In the summer of 1390, together with the whole region, they accepted the rule of the Bosnian King Tvrtko Kotromanić, who died the next year. Soon after his death, Hungary claimed the island again. In this whole period, they kept their basic autonomy and old structures – the island was never rich or strategically interesting enough to justify serious intervention. Local nobility administered and ruled Brač and the seat of the council was Nerežišća in the island’s center. The leader was selected from the noble families. Only in 1420 did the Venetia Republic reclaim the island, finally sending a representative to assume rule over it.

Venice ruled for more than four centuries, until 1797, when the Habsburg Monarchy annexed most of its territory in a deal with Napoleonic France. The official language was Latin. During this time, the Bosnian realm fell to the Ottoman Empire and many refugees settled on the islands, especially on Brač. Many towns were founded in that time and the population began moving from the interior of the island to its coast: to Bol, Milna, Postira, Povlja, Pučišća, Splitska, Sumartin, Supetar i Sutivan.

During the Napoleonic Wars, Brač was conquered by the French Empire for a short time in 1806. In 1807, Prince-Bishop Petar I Njegoš of Montenegro managed to seize Brač with the help of the Russian navy, however already at the Congress of Vienna in 1815 the island was returned to the Austrian Empire. Brač was incorporated into the Austrian crownland of Dalmatia from and became a part of Transleithania of the Monarchy of Austria-Hungary from 1867. After the fall of Austria-Hungary 1918, Brač became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, or Yugoslavia since 1929. In 1939 an autonomous Croatian Banate was created that included the island.

Povlja in the evening

The population of the island drastically decreased in the beginning of the 20th century due to heavy emigration, mostly to Latin America, especially Argentina and Chile, and to New Zealand and Australia. The emigration continued during the whole century, only later generations preferring to move to European countries, especially Germany. Among others, the Chilean writer Antonio Skármeta is descended from such immigrants.

In 1941 Italian forces occupied the island. In the mountainous regions of the island, native rebels fought a quite effective guerrilla war, but the occupiers answered harshly with arrests and executions. After the Italian capitulation in 1943, German troops occupied the island on January 12 and 13 of 1944, but in July they were defeated and the island was freed.As part of Croatia it became part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, until Croatia gained its independence in 1991, receiving recognition in 1992. The Croatian War of Independence was barely fought on the island (there was a brief bombing of Milna), but the aftermath of the war, especially the loss in tourism, was disastrous for the island. Only now is the island regenerating from the decade-long drainage of its most important revenue.

Economy

The economy of Brač is based mostly on tourism, but fishing and agriculture (especially wine and olives) are very important too, as is its precious white stone which was used in building Diocletian’s Palace in Split and the Canadia  National Vimy Memorial. Historically, Brač was famous for goats; even Pliny comments that from the island of Brattia (the Latin name for the island) comes excellent cheese, wine and olive oil.

Administration and settlements

The island is administratively divided into one city and seven municipalities, including the twenty-two settlements. Population numbers are given per 2011 census. The island is part of the Split-Dalmatia County, but is not represented there as a whole, only through its city and municipalities.

 

Illyrian Resort

Illyrian Resort is located just outside the charming town of Milna on the island of Brac. Here you will find a relaxed and idyllic place for your  holiday. Just remember to quietly sit on the terrace of their apartment, overlooking the bay and the pool area and enjoy the scenery. The staff is very service oriented and take good care of you.

In the evening, take a stroll along the harbour and maybe visit one of the fine bars and restaurants along the waterfront . Want to try your sailing skills ?, This is the right place.

Bobovisca

Bobovisca on Island Brac

This small village , located on the western side of Brac is probably Croatia’s safest natural harbor, here you can anchor and find a safe harbor for the night . The deep bay is devided into  two smaller parts Uvala vica and Bobovisca .

Bobovisca is a diamond with its pristine nature and with its distinctive Mediterranean architecture .

Here is the lead core in direct proximity to the harbor, and further out in the bays the houses is climbing  on the slopes down to the water where, at its own pier there is a little boat used for fishing and pleasure.

Bobovisce named long ago Stanac – Dolac and the name originally comes from a society in Bosnia for many years then moved basically an entire village from Bosnia to settle on Brac , this has fallen into disuse among the villagers but still they call each other Stancari .

The village Bobovisca originates from the 1600s and, along with the village Lozisca lives here today about 250 residents.

In the 1910 ’s the area was more populated and then here lived about 600 residents .

1656 completed the church of St. George, this church was very simple in its design and it was replaced by a new church that was completed in 1914.

On the south side of Bobovisca there is the famous palace Gligo owned by a wealthy shipowner from Dubrovnik, the palace was completed in the 1700s and would function as a summer house for the rich businessman.

In the northern part of the harbor there is a large handsome stone house belonging to the family Nazor , Here lived the famous poet Vladimir Nazor one of Croatia ’s biggest poets, he built a monument called the ”Three Sisters” the monument gave pleasant shade as Vladimir sat and wrote many of his most famous poems and songs .

In the bay Vica Luka geologists has in recent years found an old Greek fish trap and in the bay there are lots of delicate fish that primarily reside in the bay to find food directly adjacent fresh water source that flows into the bay’s bottom.

Bobovisca is the ideal place for broken hustling tourists, here the time stands still, and if you take a stroll into the village to buy bread in the morning you must slow down just in time to hear the silence and crickets persistent attendanteagerto findafemale.

Konoba Dalmatino

WELCOME To Konoba Dalmatino! We will give you a fresh new taste experience from the traditional Dalmatian cuisine the restaurant is located directly adjacent to the water in the beautiful bay Bobovisca on paradise island Brač.( only 500meters from the house)

 

Enjoy our authentic surroundings and enjoy the fresh ingredients always used in our kitchen, to cook our delicious local dishes along with a wide range of locally produced wine. Welcome to enjoy our cooking and our hospitality!
Bobovisca

This small village, located on the western side of Brac island just below the slopes that previously worked as olive groves and vineyards, the bay seems somehow squeezed in between the sunny slopes, but with an excellent view over the sea. the restaurant is overlook the port while the back is facing the interior and the surrounding land sites where olive groves and vineyards now lies fallow. Bobovisca is a typical gem with its distinctive Mediterranean architecture.

The tavern ” Kopacina

 

The tavern ” Kopacina ” opened its doors in 2000. With over 35 years experience in the restaurant buisness , the family  Jugović could finally open their own restaurant, ” Kopacina ” Donji Humac .
After a stealthy startup restaurant has managed to establish itself as a respected name when it comes to gastronomy , in just a few years the  Jugovićfamily have useed its know-how and expertise to give the best to all their guests.
There is a diversity of flavors, aromas and history that you can enjoy in the picturesque village of Donji Humac .
What is it that makes the restaurant « Kopacina » so unique, above all , it is because they refuse to abandon the traditional cooking ,
instead they are developing  the historic kitchen and adding new influences . Especially lamb from Brač is one of the restaurant’s unique specialties . sheep cheese , skuta, genuine Brač ” vitalac are other specialties , if you haven`t tried the Peka , this is something that you really need to experience , a haven for the discerning palate .Sure you can also enjoy all the international dishes such as meat , fresh fish and seafood , roasted potatoes, etc. …
For all wine lovers, Konoba « Kopacina » have a nice wine list with mostly local quality wines but also a lot of imports .
Besides the cozy atmosphere of the tavern which can accommodate up to sixty people , there is a beautiful terrace on the sunny side and overlooking the valley and the famous quarries . If you eat a dinner at sunset , you will be seduced by the sunsets , peace and quiet , a perfect place for romance and pleasant conversations .
The tavern ” Kopacina ” can organize all types of parties, weddings , birthdays, baptisms, and business lunches.
I hope you will visit Kopacina , and you want to feel that special « Kopacina » feeling .
Be their guest, and I promise you that you will leave the restaurant with a smile on your face.

 

 

Ziza Restaurant

With Brac best views you can enjoy fantastic service and well-prepared Croatian dishes.
The owner Ziza  takes care of the guests in an amazing way , it is customary to receive a welcome aperitif before sitting down for dinner .

From the terrace you can see Split in the background  , prepare yourself for a few enjoyable hours .Why not not start with a typical Dalmatian plate consisting of olives, salted sardines , thin slices of smoked ham as well as the traditional cheese from Brac . The main dish is fish or lamb that will end up on the plate (note that the lamb taste best in March and the end of July when the infant lamb is served ) a side order must be  , blitva ( chard) with garlic and olive oil. With a large garden that overflows with various fruits are the choice of dessert rather obvious , but the pannacotta or crème brûlée is not so bad either.
Here are some comments from previous guests
We were here for lunch so it was not too crowded when we were there. The patio with views of Split and a lush park situated comfortably in the shade , the day we were there it was very hot but in  the cool shade it was wonderful to enjoy the lunch.


A dinner at sunset and then the lights go up in Split , I look forward to the next visit.
Favorite Food : I started with the calamari salad – tender cooked through but still meaty octopus served in fresh olive oil. The mussels were jam-packed , with a spicy garlic broth and white bread  the flavor was close to  heavenly . Coffee and cake was a perfect finale.


Bistro Ziza : value for money and fantastic food.
I went to Restaurant Ziza after reading some good reviews on TripAdvisor and were definitely not disappointed! We went in a group of 10 and even from the beginning I was so impressed with the place . The layout and feel of the restaurant is amazing. Great views, beautiful house converted into a restaurant , open kitchen so you can watch the chef work , herbs and fruit trees around the corner, delicious appetizers on arrival. Amazing!
The serving was nice and the staff very helpful. All the food was delicious with very generous portions , vegetable soup is really good! Unlimited servings of fresh bread, grilled meat was really good, scampi is delicious, but a bit messy to eat 🙂
The dessert was fantastic; yummy chocolate cake , delicious fig cake and fritoles ( typical dish from Brac) . After we paid and thanked us for the waitress came with a big bag of fresh figs ….. food , must be experienced . Prices are also reasonable.

Experts in stone work

Brac is known for its amazing stone, and all talented stoneworkers, Today there are four people who are fully qualified to carry out the stone work in the Vatican, and two of them comes from Brac.

In the city Pucisca on the northeast side of Brac is one of the most prestigious schools in which to train stonecutters and sculptors, training is normally in 4 years, and after this, students are guaranteed to get a job. I highly recommend a visit to the school to look at the beautiful work that students perform.you can also take the opportunity to order a statue or fountain to your own garden ..

On the island of Brac, mankindave been looted white marble for a long period (Bracki Kamen). The stone is most famous for the construction of White House in Washington entirely is built of this stone. a large part of the Brac’s reputation is the  knowledge linked to the skills in refining  the stone for building materials, or to the statues around the world ..

Croatian Cusin

Three words describe the true art of cooking on Brač : local, organic and seasonal. We urge you all to try and find the restaurants that serve good food with fresh local ingredients – natural, healthy and delicious .

If you are lucky , you are on Brac when one of the local food festivals are held. Keep your eyes open and do not be afraid to try something new, here you always have the chance to try all kinds of local specialties. Here are some tips on things to remember. Swedish table … (yes it is actually called so , what we call the Buffet ) Ask any resident person what they think of when they think of the typical Dalmatian cuisine , I can next promise that you will get the following response … ” Ribu in blitva ” (” fish and chard) . What could be better than eating fresh , locally caught fish from the clear waters of the Adriatic Sea ?

On Brac , there are many good seafood restaurants usually are one of the family members of fishermen , which guarantees the best from the sea, fine ingredients and own cooking on the grill at home in the company of good friends is always a guarantee for a successful meal. Brac has two commercial fish factories: one in Postira , which was formed in 1906 and has specialized in canned food, here you will find oily fish such as sardines, tuna and mackerel. The second factory is located in Milna and this factory was opened for business in 2005 after several dormant years as planned marina, to buy fish directly to a third of the retail price, and that everything is fresh , you can be sure of. Fresh Tuna awaiting Grilling Because of a long tradition in the processing of fish has now specializes in products such as smoked and pickled fish and shellfish. Several restaurants are now offering their smoked tuna starter – try the brushed with olive oil and a little garlic. Of course there are a million different ways to prepare fish on but it’s hard to beat the easiest method : grilled over charcoal (preferably from olive trees ) , brushed with olive oil , parsley and garlic , and then served with chard – a fresh vegetable not unlike spinach.

At certain times of the year you may be offered wild growing vegetables – try if you get the chance, bl.a.ruccola grow here wildly. Other seasonal vegetables that are delicious asparagus is – usually the thin , green wild asparagus. ( divlja šparoga ) , one can see whole families wandering along the roads to the March pick sacks full of this green delicacy, also fava beans ( BOB) , can be enjoyed along with fresh fish when the season is right. Bob can be prepared in many countless ways. Brac is known as the ” inner island ” for centuries , its interior has been much more populated than the coast. The inner parts of the island was populated most of Livestock Attendants , this can still be seen through the island’s cuisines , where fish are outweighed by meat dishes , traditional lamb and goat . Residents at Brac also lived in producing olive oil and wine. You can buy both commercially produced and homemade oils and wines. Olive oil labeled ” extra virgin ” has a delightfully peppery and fruity taste.

Do not be afraid to try home – produced wine either, it tends to be very good. The local variety is Plavac Mali, which thrives on the southern , sunny slopes on the south side of the island. Plavac Bol and Plavac Baković (from Murvica ) are two brands that you can get over. A new local winery is Bosso , who harvest from 2008 stored in oak barrels has got a great taste that fits usefully into dark meat , the wine is rich in flavor and here the discerning gourmet heaven …

When it comes to white wine, you will find a Chardonnay and a variety called Pošip in the fabulous restaurant Kopacina in Donji Humac . Another excellent Brač product is cheese, which is usually made ​​from sheep’s milk. The cheese is pretty hard, and has a delicious nutty flavor . Unfortunately, good local cheese in short supply, it is only in the spring you will find the local cheese in the better restaurants while supplies last . These restaurants also offer Škuta on the dessert menu. This is a very soft, fresh cheese, neutral in flavor and usually served with pancakes , jam or honey . Speaking of desserts, natural sweets that are made from indigenous ingredients from the island ’s fig, honey , bread, fruits, nuts , grapes and cherries. Hrapačuša is a cake made ​​primarily of almonds, walnuts and lemon: its spiritual home is the village of Dol . Bracka Torta (Brač cake) is a traditional cake from the village Škrip made ​​of almonds and chocolate . Sweet specialties common throughout Dalmatia and you also find here are rožata , similar to crème caramel , and crispy fritters called hroštule and Mendule u cukru , almonds rolled in powdered sugar .

Another culinary specialty that Bračans are very proud of is Myoxus GLIS also known as the dormouse . When we saw these fat , little imps with large bushy tails , much like gray squirrels but with a little chubbier faces and big eyes, eating them was when the last thing we could think of . But the tradition to eat this animal , known as a ” puh ” on Croatian goes back to Roman times. Hrapačuša village of Dol has her very own living legend – a woman named Barica , proud holder of the title of world champion in baking Hrapačuša cake. Some might point out that Hrapačuša only done on Brac and especially in Dol and that this is therefore not a particularly remarkable performance at all, but when we nevertheless chose to taste the cake of Barica when she told us that she is not only the best in the world but also in the entire universe with all galaxies. Her Hrapačuša is a crescendo of nuts, lemon , browned sugar and egg yolk, a calorie bomb that evokes an intense sugar high and has been named ” Dols Viagra ” and rightly so .

Try Barica award winning cake in Konoba Toni or at one of the island’s gastronomic festivals . Vitalac Meat enthusiasts need some time to test this right, which is only made of entrails from goat and lamb, this is truly one of Brač culinary specialties , the old tradition of making this meal is so old and so unique that vitalac is listed as a food served heritage in Croatia. Threading on a spit up small pieces of kidney, lung , or what have you, salted and wrapped in a soft piece of muscle tissue , gently grilled, then wrapped in a piece of intestine and then roast another hour until crispy on the outside. For best results it should be a young lambs not yet begun to suckle its mother Varenik An unusual sauce , called Varenik believed to have been made at Brac 2000 years ago – it was mentioned first in Roman times. It is made ​​by boiling red wine down into a concentrate , which is then stored in bottles and used for all kinds of food, sweet and savory , to provide a unique and rich flavor. Meanwhile, for Varenik festival in late September , a variety of uses in dishes prepared with the help of this ingredient , and the island’s restaurants , a number of specials on the menu this season.

Diving in Croatia

Kroatien erbjuder spännande dykning i det varma medelhavet. [half]Vattnet i Adriatiska havet är troligtvis det klaraste i hela Medelhavet, bland annat beroende på att området är så skyddat och att klimatet är stabilt. Den bästa och mest varierade dykning finns längs den södra delen av kusten och på havssidan av den Kroatiska skärgårdens många öar.

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